Channels Details

This section indicates, for each monitored transmitter, the distance and bearing from the receiving station.
The location of the subreflective point(s) of each signal path in precised. From one to three points exist depending on the transmitting station distance. They indicate where the sky wave bounces off the ionosphere.

In addition, the bandwidth setting of the receiver, expressed in Hertz, is shown. This bandwidth must be narrow enough to reject adjacent stations and wide enough to cover the modulated signal spectrum.

Finally, the interference pattern between the ground and sky waves is indicated. It appears as a sinusoid ranging between +1 (sky and ground waves in phase) and -1 (sky and ground waves out of phase) on the vertical axis. When in-phase, the interference is constructive and leads to a signal amplitude enhancement. When out-of-phase, the interference is destructive, and leads to signal amplitude reduction. The interference depends on the virtual reflection height of the sky wave on the D region of the ionosphere, as shown on the horizontal axis of the plot. The higher the ionisation level of the D region, the lower the reflexion height. This plot explains how solar flares affect the signal amplitude and helps understanding why a given flare can lead to a signal increase on one channel and to a signal decrease on another.
The interference pattern is defined only for short propagation paths (1D mode).

Channel 1: GBZ on 19.6kHz

Distance:1305km   (1 hop)
Bearing:347°   (N-S loop)
Sub-reflective point:49°12'N   000°42'W   (IN99PE)
Receiver Bandwidth (3dB):100Hz
Linear scale
GBZ propagation path
GBZ interference pattern

Channel 2: ICV on 20.27kHz

Distance:764km   (1 hop)
Bearing:109°   (E-W loop)
Sub-reflective point:42°16'N   005°37'E   (JN22TG)
Receiver Bandwidth (3dB):110Hz
Linear scale
ICV propagation path
ICV interference pattern

Channel 3: GQD on 22.1kHz

Distance:1279km   (1 hop)
Bearing:348°   (N-S loop)
Sub-reflective point:49°07'N   000°32'W   (IN99RC)
Receiver Bandwidth (3dB):110Hz
Linear scale
GQD propagation path
GQD interference pattern

Channel 4: DHO38 on 23.4kHz

Distance:1163km   (1 hop)
Bearing:21°   (N-S loop)
Sub-reflective point:48°19'N   004°10'E   (JN28CH)
Receiver Bandwidth (3dB):120Hz
Linear scale
DHO38 propagation path
DHO38 interference pattern

Channel 5: NAA on 24kHz

Distance:5300km   (3 hops)
Bearing:297°   (E-W loop)
Sub-reflective points:47°25'N   056°31'W   (GN17RK)
49°30'N   032°35'W   (HN39QM)
46°34'N   009°04'W   (IN56LN)
Receiver Bandwidth (3dB):160Hz
Linear scale
NAA propagation path

Channel 6: TBB on 26.7kHz

Distance:2307km   (2 hops)
Bearing:098°   (E-W loop)
Sub-reflective points:39°27'N   021°17'E   (KM09PK)
42°31'N   008°15'E   (JN42CM)
Receiver Bandwidth (3dB):200Hz
Linear scale
TBB propagation path

Channel 7: NRK on 37.5kHz

Distance:2708km   (2 hops)
Bearing:335°   (N-S loop)
Sub-reflective points:59°14'N   014°00'W   (IO39AF)
48°55'N   002°40'W   (IN88QW)
Receiver Bandwidth (3dB):420Hz
Linear scale
NRK propagation path

Channel 8: NSY on 45.9kHz

Distance:1331km   (1 hop)
Bearing:118°   (E-W loop)
Sub-reflective points:40°29'N   008°11'E   (JN40CL)
Receiver Bandwidth (3dB):560Hz
Linear scale
NSY propagation path
NSY interference pattern

Channel 9: DCF77 on 77.5kHz

Distance:937km   (1 hop)
Bearing:036°   (N-S loop)
Sub-reflective points:46°48'N   004°56'E   (JN26LT)
Receiver Bandwidth (3dB):1200Hz
Linear scale
DCF77 propagation path
DCF77 interference pattern
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